Veys Aydin
VeysiAydin@gmx.de

 

 


Amadekar:

Veysi AYDIN

 

 

Di sedsala 19an de Etnografya Mrdn/Tur Abdn

 

 

Bajar Mrdn dora sala 1770an (ji pirtuka Carsten Nebuhr)

 

 

Pk

 

Weke t zann der u dora Mrdn yek ji kevintirn unewar gelan e. Ev herm bo Kurdan, Aramyan (Suryanyan), rmenyan, Ereban, Turkemenan wek gel, bo Cihuyan, Meshyan, Misilman u zdyan wek ol buye welat. Bi sedan sal bi hevre demn ba u neba derbaskirine. Hemu gel u olan opn xwe li v herm hitine. L mixabin gellek ji wan helyane an j ji ber zordary welat bav u kaln xwe terikandine. Heta sedsala 18 u 19an j van gel u oln navbor km zde bihevre atyane dijyan. Ev rast bala endn gerrok u lkolneran kiandye. Hinekan ji wan nerrn u lkolnan li ser v rasty nivsandine. Yek ji wan kesan Dr. A. Schlaefli y Alman e. Di kovara Mitteilungen aus der Justus Perters Geographisher Anstalt" (Ango Agahdaryn Sazya Erdnas ya Justus Perters) de sala 1863"an lkolnek biuk li ser etnografya herma Mrdn (Tur Abdn/Cebel Tor) apkirye.Bingeha lkolna w, avdryn w yn gerra w ya li v herm ye. Ew bi xwe sala 1861an uy herma Tur Abdn u gellek zanyar tomarkirye. Li gel navn bajar u gundan, navn gel u ern w herm j pkkirye.

 

Lkoln li ser etnografya v herm u baur raq ye u bi taybet li ser era Madayn u yn din yn dora Besra nitecne.. Min hew bea li ser Kurdistan, Cebel Tor an Tur Abdn wergerand.

 

Bo tgihitina dewlemendya etnografya v herm ya sedsala 19an min ev lkolna kurt bo we wegerand Kurd bi hvya qedirgirtina gel u oln li Kurdistan di peroj de.

 

Nexe u wneya Mrdn, ko min li ber v nivs xist, ji hla Carsten Niebuhr hatye kirin. Weke t zann, Carsten Niebuhr die saln 1770yan gerrek li rojhilata navn pk anye u avder u zanyaryn xwe di pirtuka xwe Beschrying van Arabie tomar kirye. Ev pirtuk sala 1774an li Utrecht/Holand ap buye u bo gellek zimanan hatye wergerandin.

 

Veysi Aydin

 

 

 

 

 

Tbn li ser Etnografya Kurdistan u Mezopotamya

 

Dr. A. Schlaefli

 

Nexa Tur Abdn / Cebel Tor (ji pirtuka Carsten Nebuhr)

 

 

Hozn Kurd yn Cebel Tor

 

Dirjyn yayn Merdn an j yayn Re di nabna yayn Sincar u em Dcle yayn Tor (Tur Abdn) hene. Ev yana ji hla Kurdan ve wek "yayn re, ji hla Tirkan ve wek Karacadag tn binavkirin. Ev devera ku gellek gund u bajarn Jaqub, Kurd u zd hene, heta van demn dawy, ji bo me nenas bu..

 

Di gerra xwe, ya sala 1861an li Kurdistan min derfet dt, hinek avdr li ser hozn Kurd yn devera Cebel Tor bikim.

 

Hema hema hemu nitecyn Kurd yn yay re girday hoza Ata (1) ne. wa wan ji wa Kurdn Zaza u Bohtan cuda ye. Ev hoza bi gelek trj u bavan pk t. Tanzmat li bandorek mezin ji bona jiberhevketna van hozankirye. En tr u bavikn hoz gellek caran err hevdu dikirin.

 

Er u trn ji v hoz bo min bi ikl hat nasandin:

 

Arabya Cihn wan ji Dcle destpdike u dighje heta Mdyat. Axay wan li Kerboran rudine. Bi dadwerek re, k ji Konstantnopol hatye andin, birvebir u dadwery dike. Nav 32 gundn wan evin:

 

 

 

Nav gund

Jimara

xanyan

Nav gund

Jimara xanyan

 

lik (li kleka Dcle)

110-120

Derece

100

Sv

15

Kerboran

300-350

Mid

50-60

Izar/sar

30-50

Germaro

20

Barut

20-30

Herdax (li kleka Dcle)

15

Berkewan

30-40

Lyan

20-30

Dinre

15

Sengan/Zengan

120-140

Svenk

100-150

Xella

200-250

Amare

150-200

Arbe/Arba

100

Der Zoxrava

5-6

ems

100-150

Deywan

250-300

Deng

5-6

Mehna

20-30

Guher

20-30

Ger

50-60

Mol / Moyl (li kleka Dcle)

70-80

Kutna

5-6

Clik

30-40

Druwa

5-6

Germav (li kleka Dcle)

20-30

Kerben

60-80

atra (niha hilweyaye)

15

(Seyida, nebyn pxember li vir nitecne)

 

Dengi (niha hilweyaye)

5-6

 

 

 

Li hinda Germaro, ko wek hlna ta (heraret) e, em Nehar ji nav iy derdikeve. Pit (nv) seet diherrke em Dcle. Germaro 4 demjimr (seet) ji lik dur e. Gunde Mid 2 seet li binya Germaro ye, ku ev gund li kleka em e. Gund Sev li kleka em Nehar e u seetek dur Germaro u lik e. Lidora v gund xirbeyn bajarek kevn heye Nav w y ro Bat/ ye. Li Kerboran gellek Yaqob rudinin.

 

Kurdn Arabya dikanin di eran de 500 ta 600 zilamn bi ek amade bikin. Gellek caran bi Kurdn Baskl u Kurdn lya re er dajon. Ev erana li qeraxn bakur Dcle nitecne.

 

Daxur 700 ta 800 zilamn wan yn ekdar hene.

 

Baskl/Basgl 300 ta 500 peyayn wan yn ekdar hene. Xwed 21 ta 23 gundan in. Ev navn gundn wan bo min hat gotin:

Nav gund

Jimara xanyan

Nav gund

Jimara xanyan

 

Meran

 

200

 

Kupre

 

15

Boxteka

100

ibb

20

Hetna

50

Berdahol

20-25

Boti

20

Baxil

100

ikefta gewr

30

 

 

 

Salihan Nzk idyat rudinin. Axay wan j li wir nitecye. Erek biuke u hew 50-60 ekdarn wan hene.

 

Dlmemikan- 600-700 ekdarn wan hene. Axay wan li Gewes dimne.

 

Dumanan-Cnarn Salihan in. 50-60 ekdarn wan hene.

 

Dorikan- 100 ekdarn wan hene.

 

Harunyan

 

Omerka- Li jr Kerboran, li ser rya Cizr nitecne.

 

Manna-Nzk Cizr rudinin.

 

Alwa

 

Hesenan

 

Alyan

 

Tur / Tor

 

De Nzk Mrdn rudinin

 

Mige Nzk Mrdn rudinin

 

Tisyan